James O'Neill's Blog

July 22, 2009

Release the Windows 7 !

Filed under: Beta Products,Windows 7,Windows Server,Windows Server 2008-R2 — jamesone111 @ 10:03 pm

It’s official. Windows 7 has released to manufacturing. http://www.microsoft.com/Presspass/press/2009/jul09/07-22Windows7RTMPR.mspx 

It’s official. Windows Server 2008 R2 has released to Manufacturing http://blogs.technet.com/windowsserver/archive/2009/07/22/windows-server-2008-r2-rtm.aspx

It’s official. Hyper-V server R2 has released to manufacturing http://blogs.technet.com/virtualization/archive/2009/07/22/windows-server-2008-r2-hyper-v-server-2008-r2-rtm.aspx 

When will be able to get your hands on it http://windowsteamblog.com/blogs/windows7/archive/2009/07/21/when-will-you-get-windows-7-rtm.aspx 

 

Woo hoo !

This post originally appeared on my technet blog.

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May 27, 2009

How to Install an Image onto a VHD file.

Filed under: Beta Products,How to,Virtualization,Windows 7,Windows Server 2008-R2 — jamesone111 @ 11:43 am

The last post I made talked about customizing windows image (.WIM) files, and the post before that talked about creating Virtual hard disk (.VHD) files. So the last step is to look at putting an image onto a VHD and making it bootable

So the steps are

  1. Identify your WIM file and if it has multiple images in, which image you are going to install. This might be (a) from the INSTALL.WIM on the windows setup disk (b) a customized version of INSTALL.WIM (see yesterday’s post), (c) an image which you have captured using the IMAGEX tool from the Windows Automated Installation Kit
  2. Create your VHD file. (See this post)
  3. Apply the image to the VHD, and make any additional customizations (enabling or disabling components, applying patches, or adding drivers (all of which can be done with DISM, see yesterdays post). adding files, changing registry entries)
  4. If the VHD is to be used to boot a physical machine, add an entry to the machines boot partition to point to the VHD (which I covered here) If the VHD is to be used for a virtual machine make the VHD itself bootable by creating a Boot Configuration database inside it.

Step 3, applying the image can be done using image X if you have installed the Windows Automated Installation Kit  using the command

"<path to AIK>\tools\<architecture>\Imagex.exe" /apply <path to wim> <image number> V:  

V: is the drive letter assigned to the mounted VHD use 1 as the <image number> for the first or only image

I mentioned a post by Mike Kolitz, Mike has also got a script on the MSDN code site which goes by the name of WIM2VHD this will create the VHD, apply the WIM file,and patches you provide and copy files into the VHD. Unless you want to customize the registry or turn components on or off this is the ideal tool* but it depends on having the tools from the Automated Installation kit. Mike, to prove what an all-round good chap he is has a PowerShell script on the same site named Install_windowsImage (this script also shows how other languages can be embedded in PowerShell scripts) which removes that dependency so the alternative is to download this and run

<path>\Install-WindowsImage.ps1 -WIM <path to wim> -Apply -Index <image number> -Destination V: 

As before V: is the drive letter assigned to the mounted VHD, and you use the number of the image starting at 1. Both imageX and InstallWindowsImage.ps1 can provide a list of images in the WIM file if required.

This process takes a few minutes but at the end you have an image which is ready to boot for the first time. Then you’re ready for step 4: making sure the windows boot loader will work.

If the VHD is going to appear as the System disk in a virtual machine the VM will use the boot loader and BCD on the that disk – i.e. we need a boot configuration database inside the VHD. Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2 now have a tool in the \windows\system32 directory named BCDBOOT which recreates the BCD. If you run

<Path\>bcdboot  V:\windows V:

It will create a BCD inside the VHD file and when a VM comes to boot from it all will be well.

I’ve discussed adding an entry to the BCD on a machine which is already running Windows Vista/7 /Server 2008 / Server 2008R2 , which needs an entry in the BCD on the physical hard disk which points to the VHD. An alternative way to create the entry  uses BCDboot.  If you run it with a /M switch it merges the boot information into an existing BCD. So if you are adding a VHD to boot an alternate OS from, then you can use that command. If you’re doing something odd like running windows PE to setup a new machine to boot from a VHD on a newly formatted drive you can use the same bcdboot V:\windows C: to create the store. If you are adding a Windows 7 / Server R2 VHD to a machine with a Vista / Server 2008 installation on it, don’t forget to update the machine to support the new features with bootsect from the windows Install disk.

 


* I’m assuming you want to know what the steps are and how you could take them manually, rather than just going straight to Wim2VHD.

This post originally appeared on my technet blog.

May 26, 2009

How to: customize Windows images with DISM

Filed under: Beta Products,How to,Virtualization,Windows 7,Windows Server 2008-R2 — jamesone111 @ 6:27 pm

In the initial release of Windows Server 2008 one of the the questions which always came up was “how do I add X” – the answer was we had tools named OCSETUP and OCLIST. These have been superseded in Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2 with the new Deployment Image Servicing and Management tool (DISM.EXE). The major thing of note about DISM is that it works with both the current running windows image and with offline images. So

DISM.exe /online /enable-feature /featurename=FailoverCluster-Core 

adds failover clustering to a running edition of Server Core,but you can add it to a mounted VHD file (see previous post) on drive V

DISM.exe /image:V:\ /enable-feature /featurename=FailoverCluster-Core 

DISM has some of the functions of ImageX (which is in the Windows Auto Installation Kit) – the ability to list the Images in a WIM (Windows Image) file, and to mount an image into the file system, and commit the changes made to it.

DISM.exe /mount-wim /wimfile:C:\dump\install.wim /index:1 /mountdir:c:\dump\mount

DISM.exe /image:c:\dump\install.wim /enable-feature /featurename=FailoverCluster-Core

DISM.exe /unmount-wim /mountdir:c:\dump\mount /commit

I thought I would have a go at reducing foot print of hyper-V server R2 (note that I’m working with the Release candidate and what is included may change before release) so I used DISM to remove the language packs, and configure the exact features I want. The following command gets a list if packeges

dism /image:c:\dump\mount /get-packages
Package Identity : Microsoft-Windows-Server-LanguagePack-Package~31bf3856ad364e35~amd64~de-DE~6.1.7100.0 Package Identity : Microsoft-Windows-Server-LanguagePack-Package~31bf3856ad364e35~amd64~en-US~6.1.7100.0 Package Identity : Microsoft-Windows-Server-LanguagePack-Package~31bf3856ad364e35~amd64~es-ES~6.1.7100.0 Package Identity : Microsoft-Windows-Server-LanguagePack-Package~31bf3856ad364e35~amd64~fr-FR~6.1.7100.0 Package Identity : Microsoft-Windows-Server-LanguagePack-Package~31bf3856ad364e35~amd64~ja-JP~6.1.7100.0 Package Identity : Microsoft-Windows-ServerCore-Package~31bf3856ad364e35~amd64~~6.1.7100.0

I want to keep the English pack and base features, and remove all the others with the remove-package option

dism /image:c:\dump\mount /remove-Package /packageName:Microsoft-Windows-Server-LanguagePack-Package~31bf3856ad364e35~amd64~ja-JP~6.1.7100.0 

dism /image:c:\dump\mount /remove-Package /packageName:Microsoft-Windows-Server-LanguagePack-Package~31bf3856ad364e35~amd64~fr-FR~6.1.7100.0
dism /image:c:\dump\mount /remove-Package /packageName:Microsoft-Windows-Server-LanguagePack-Package~31bf3856ad364e35~amd64~es-ES~6.1.7100.0
dism /image:c:\dump\mount /remove-Package /packageName:Microsoft-Windows-Server-LanguagePack-Packagyue~31bf3856ad364e35~amd64~de-DE~6.1.7100.0

Next I took a look at the installed features. This list has been trimmed down to save space, and when used in the later commands the names are case sensitive

dism /image:c:\dump\mount /get-features 

  Feature Name : Microsoft-Hyper-V
  State : Enabled
  Feature Name : Microsoft-Hyper-V-Configuration
  State : Enabled
  Feature Name : ServerCore-WOW64
  State : Enabled
  Feature Name : ServerCore-EA-IME
  State : Enabled
  Feature Name : NetFx2-ServerCore
  State : Disabled
  Feature Name : MicrosoftWindowsPowerShell
  State : Disabled
  Feature Name : ServerManager-PSH-Cmdlets
  State : Disabled
  Feature Name : WindowsServerBackup
  State : Disabled

You can use Get-packageInfo and Get-Feature info to get more information about the features and packages. I decided to remove the 32 bit support (WOW64) and the East Asian Language support (EA-IME), and then put in the PowerShell support.

dism /image:c:\dump\mount /disable-feature /featureName:ServerCore-EA-IME 
dism /image:c:\dump\mount /disable-feature /featureName:ServerCore-WOW64   
dism /image:c:\dump\mount /enable-feature /featureName:NetFx2-ServerCore
dism /image:c:\dump\mount /enable-feature /featureName:MicrosoftWindowsPowerShell dism /image:c:\dump\mount /enable-feature /featureName:ServerManager-PSH-Cmdlets dism /image:c:\dump\mount /enable-feature /featureName:BestPractices-PSH-Cmdlets

With the WIM file mounted it is also possible to copy files into it or to mount the registry hives and tweak registry settings such as allowing PowerShell scripts to run.

reg load HKLM\MyTemp C:\Dump\mount\windows\system32\config\SOFTWARE

reg add "HKLM\MyTemp\Microsoft\PowerShell\1\ShellIds\Microsoft.PowerShell" /V ExecutionPolicy /t REG_SZ /d "RemoteSigned"

reg Unload HKLM\MyTemp

And Finally unmount the WIM fiile

DISM.exe /unmount-wim /mountdir:c:\dump\mount /commit

That’s done little more than scratch the surface, DISM can add drivers or patches (.MSU files) to an image, it can bring it into line with an Unattend.INF file, set input locales and timezones, even change the machine name. Now, the amount that you customize an existing WIM depends on whether or not you expect to install it enough times to make it worthwhile. It might be useful to update VHD files and of course it is the way to add features to server-Core or hyper-V installations.

Since the last post was about creating VHD files, you can guess that the next one will be about applying the images in WIM files to a VHD.

This post originally appeared on my technet blog.

How to: work with VHD files at the command line.

Filed under: Beta Products,How to,Virtualization,Windows 7,Windows Server 2008-R2 — jamesone111 @ 12:22 pm

Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) files have been given greater importance in Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2. They’ve always been used for hosting virtual machines (from the earliest Virtual PC through to Hyper-V) , and in Vista the complete image backup began to use VHD format, the iSCSI target software in Storage server – which is now available to TechNet subscribers. But in the new OSes we can boot from a VHD, mount VHDs and create VHDs in the standard OS.

In the library I created for Hyper-V, one of the first things I wanted to do was to be able to create VHDs and Mount and Unmount them. In fact when Hyper-V mounts the disk it doesn’t bring it on-line and flags it read only, so the PowerShell code I wrote not only had to call the WMI functions provided by hyper-V’s Image Management Service, but it also needed to invoke DiskPart.exe with a script to get the disk to a useful state. If the Index of the mounted VHD is stored in $diskIndex this line of PowerShell does that for me: 

@("select disk $diskIndex", "online disk" , "attributes disk clear readonly", "exit")  | Diskpart | Out-Null }

In Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2 you don’t need a script to call WMI objects to create and attach a VHD (note that Hyper-Vs image management service calls it Mounting/unmounting, and the newer Windows calls it attaching/detaching: it’s the same thing): it can be done from diskpart.exe – perhaps automating it as above – or from the storage part of the management console. Of course the MMC isn’t available if you are running on server Core, and the command line versions are also available when booting into Windows-PE to set up a machine so it useful to know what they are. DiskPart needs to be run  elevated (unless you are signed in as the account named administrator, or running Windows PE), it’s just as happy running from PowerShell as from CMD, provided you run as administrator. The following DiskPart commands will setup a VHD.

create vdisk file=<path>.vhd maximum=<size in MB> type=fixed 

select vdisk file=<path>.vhd

attach vdisk

create partition primary

active

assign letter=V

format quick fs=ntfs label=<OS Name>

exit

By default Create Vdisk makes a fixed VHD, you can also use type=Expandable;  a fixed VHD takes quite a bit longer as the file system creates a file the size specified by maximum and writes zero-filled blocks to the file (HELP CREATE VDISK will show you more options)

To mount a VHD , you select the virtual disk, and then attach it. Initially this disk won’t have any partitions on it (just like a freshly unwrapped hard disk), so the next step is to create a primary partition, make it active, give it a drive letter (I like to use V for VHD) and put a file system on it. Now you have a working drive V: of the specified size with an NTFS file system on it. You can unmount it by going back into diskpart and entering

select vdisk file=<path>.vhd 

detach vdisk

exit

and re-attach it with

select vdisk file=<path>.vhd 

detach vdisk

exit

In a later post I’ll cover how we can put an OS onto the VHD and how that OS can be customized, and also put up a link to a video of VHDs in action.

This post originally appeared on my technet blog.

May 21, 2009

How to configure iSCSI on Server 2008 R2 core or Hyper-V server

Filed under: Beta Products,Virtualization,Windows Server 2008-R2 — jamesone111 @ 5:28 pm

In my post a couple of days ago I talked about configuring my servers from the command line and one of my interests at the moment is finishing off some powershell tools to handle the configuration of Server Core and Hyper-V server. I mentioned in passing that I was going to do something to wrap round the horrible command line tool iscsiCLi. Then I saw this mail exchange. 



From: [Engineer]
Sent: Monday,
Subject: Iscscli.exe


Hi,
Can anyone please send me a step-by-step DOC on configuring disks in Server Core using iSCSICLI.exe?
Thanks!


From: [Consultant]
Sent: [A Little Later]
Subject: RE: Iscscli.exe


R2 or R1?  For R2 use iscsicpl.exe.   Much easier than the command line.


From: [Program manager]
Sent: [A little later still]
Subject: RE: Iscscli.exe


Yes,definitely we added iscicpl in server core specifically to address this, just type iscsicpl from command line to launch gui.


I happened to know the were CPL files for Regional settings and datetime but the rest of control panel was missing. I did a quick search on server core for anything containing CPL and found MPIOCPL and then saw this thread.



From: [Consultant]  
Sent: Wednesday
Subject: iSCSI and MPIO on Server Core


Can anybody share some command on how to configure iSCSI with MPIO on server core?


From: [Prorgram manager]
Sent: [A little later]
Subject: RE: iSCSI and MPIO on Server Core


Both of these have UI’s that can be used.


iSCSI: iscsicpl.exe


MPIO; The feature needs to be enabled first. You can do that using ocsetup or dism.


Once the feature is enabled, use mpiocpl to configure MPIO.


So there might still be a need for automation purposes to use IscsiCli, but iSCSI and multipath IO working you have GUI tools, even on core. So I won’t be doing that in Powershell after all.


This post originally appeared on my technet blog.

May 19, 2009

Boot from VHD – the joy of BCDedit and a nice hyper-v gotcha or two.

I’ve been updating two of my machines from the Beta to the RC of Server 2008 R2. It’s been quite a learning experience, and I’ve put together a video to show some of the things that Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2 can do with VHDs which should be posted soon. Along the way I’ve found some of the pitfalls and climbed out of them so let me share what happened.

The idea was simple enough. Install the new OS into a VHD, at the first reboot copy the VHD and use it to bring a second machine up at the same “mostly installed” point.  That is quite simple 3 commands using BCD edit. In Windows NT from 3.1 all the way through to server 2003 the bootstap loader used a file named boot.ini to tell it what to do. Boot.ini made way for the boot configuration database, very clever it  is too, unfortunately you can’t work on it in a text editor – instead of being an XML file or similar it it’s edited with BCD edit. The database contains a number of sections. One named “Windows Boot Manager” describes the menu which appears at boot time, another “Windows Boot Loader” describes the settings for the OS to boot and other sections can describe things like the RAMdisk windows Hyper-V boots from. If you run BCDEDIT /enum all from an elevated command prompt you can see what’s in it.

Windows 7 and Server R2 have some new bits in their boot loader to allow them to boot from a VHD file instead of a hard disk, and to the OSes themselves have some logic to cope with this. If you update the boot sector on a Windows Server 2008 or Vista machine (using BootSect in the boot folder of the Windows 7 / Server 2008 R2 install disk) you can make a machine which boots into Server 2008 (say) from the hard disk and Server 2008 from a VHD. No repartitioning disks or dealing with two sets of Windows on 1 partition. And that’s what I was running before.

It seemed like a good idea to re-create the entry in the BCD for my copied hard disk, so I deleted it and recreated a boot loader section.

BCDEDIT /copy {current} /D “Windows Server 2008 R2 RC on VHD”

This returns a GUID which you need to copy and use in two further commands: I got these wrong… not that I realized it.

While I was copying 10 gigs of VHD file to the second machine I finished the setup on the first enabling Hyper-V, Audio, the Windows Desktop experience, the PowerShell interactive environment and so on. Then it was time to boot machine 2. It failed. I tried fixing the BCD. No joy. It wasn’t clear to me if the problem was the BCD or VHD file so I copied the one I’d just finished configuring… which didn’t work either. I briefly made that machine totally unbootable by exporting the BCD from the working machine and importing it. BCDs aren’t portable, and it makes me think there is more information in there than you can see – so that it hooks the information up with the right disk. Fortunately I’d also exported the BCD I overwrote so I got back to where I had been. Over on the Virtualization blog my friend Mike Kolitz has a recent post about boot from VHD and wondering if I might something out of date or just wrong I checked the syntax he was using and it was completely different from mine. His went

bcdedit /set {GUID} osdevice  vhd=[locate]\folder\filename.vhd
bcdedit /set {GUID} device  vhd=[locate]\folder\filename.vhd

This worked. The Set command in BCD edit takes 3 parts, the identifier of the section, the name of the Value being set in that section, and what that value should be set to . So VHD=[locate] isn’t telling the command about a VHD parameter the = sign is literal text.
So I now I had a duplicate machine and to avoid problems with the domain I syspreped it, gave it a new name, set its IP address and joined it to the domain. All fine I tried to connect between the machines. No luck. I quickly eliminated the firewall as an issue, and both could talk to the domain controller, IP addresses were getting resolved. Time to check the arp cache. I can never remember the switches for arp.exe but it’s arp –a to dump out the cache (Oh yes a change from / to – for switches … I was already grinding my teeth missing the consistency and tab-expansion of switches the we have in Powershell). This led me to the discovery that I had duplicate MAC addresses on both machines – or strictly on both Virtual NICs which I had created in Hyper-V before duplicating the VHD. I’d ended up working at Machine 1 and deleting and recreating the network connection did no good at all. So, as if to prove that mistakes come in bunches, I set about re-installing machine 1. Had I thought about I would have reinstalled the copy, not the original. You see, when the MAC address is chosen for a virtual NIC it is based on the MAC address of the physical NIC (with the first few digits changed):  recreating the virtual network on Machine 2 fixed the problem.

This gave me a chance to test some other PowerShell I have been writing to configure the machine, and I thought I would try doing the whole configuration from the command line. This lead me into the new “Deployment Image Servicing and Management tool” DISM.EXE which deserves a week of blog posts by itself. Notice how command line uses a colon rather than a space to separate the name of a parameter from its value. 

DISM.exe /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:Microsoft-Hyper-V     
DISM.exe /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:Microsoft-Hyper-V-Management-Clients
installs Hyper-V itself, then the management tools and hey presto it doesn’t work …. what ? Installing these parts doesn’t tell the hypervisor to load at boot time, that needs an entry in BCDEdit.

bcdedit /set "{default}" hypervisorlaunchtype auto

OK I had hyper-v working. I had the components I wanted installed, I used some my PowerShell Library for Hyper-v  to set up the Virtual network and some other bits of Powershell that I’m getting ready to release to Set the IP address and patch the machine via windows update. PowerShell has a command to add a machine to a Domain so that was that taken care of – strangely there is no rename-machine, so that’s on my Powershell to-do list. The final step before creating my cluster was to hook up to ISCSI disks. I knew Dave Northey had posted about this so I copied the commands he used.

iscsicli QAddTargetPortal daven-2008
iscsicli QAddTarget iqn.1991-05.com.microsoft:daven-2008-daven-2008-target daven-2008
iscsicli QloginTarget iqn.1991-05.com.microsoft:daven-2008-daven-2008-target
iscsicli PersistentLoginTarget iqn.1991-05.com.microsoft:daven-2008-daven-2008-target T * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0
iscsicli BindPersistentVolumes
iscsicli ListPersistentTargets
iscsicli ReportTargetMappings

And the 4th one down really does have 17 parameters of which 15 are “*” Notice also how the commands don’t use / or – ; if nothing else I might wrap these up in PowerShell to make them easier to call.

I might drill a little deeper into the way these work for future posts, but right now I want to finish my PowerShell “Configurator” script which I referred to above. And I have a video in the works for uses of VHDs.

This post originally appeared on my technet blog.

May 9, 2009

A Windows 7 tip for (untidy) presenters

Filed under: Beta Products,Windows 7 — jamesone111 @ 10:49 pm





Click for a full size view

Do you have lots of icons on your windows desktop ? I do. And sometimes when I’m giving a presentation I think not only do they look untidy, there might be something given away by the icon and file name. The fix for that is to create a folder named “my stuff” or “everything else” and drag everything into it. Bringing the files back means rearranging them so I know where they are and there’s a few minutes wasted.


As of RC windows 7 has two options on the desktop’s “Context” menu (the right click menu as most people call it) under View


“Show desktop icons” and “show desktop gadgets”,


So if you have “Dastardly plans.docx” and a “Dastardly plans progress” gadget you can hide them in a couple of clicks and bring them back exactly as they were .


Obviously I don’t have anything like that in my screen shot :  I do like like the gadget which now comes with media center, but I don’t want to start presentations with a distraction on Dr Who.  I think media center needs a good“what’s on TV right-now gadget” the only ones I saw on Vista were flakey


Update: Someone in the audience for a presentation told me that this was not new in Windows 7. I told him it most certainly was. Then I fired up XP in a Virtual Machine and found the option is there – though the menu isn’t as easy to use, and checked on Vista and it is there too. It’s not unusual for me to forget when a feature was introduced, but I’d missed this one altogether. At least I did it in time to say to the audience I had got my facts wrong.


 

This post originally appeared on my technet blog.

May 7, 2009

Customizing the Windows 7 logon screen: no additional tools required

Filed under: Beta Products,Windows 2003 Server,Windows Server 2008-R2 — jamesone111 @ 2:39 pm

A few of people have noticed that I’m running Windows 7 with a customized logon screen, and a couple of them asked me if I used “logon studio” which (as I understand it) rummages round inside some of the image resources buried in DLL files.

In Windows 7 we have provided a registry key for OEMS to turn on custom backgrounds it’s under HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Authentication\LogonUI\Background and the name is OEMBackground, you can add it if it isn’t there – it’s a DWORD 1 indicates use the custom backgrounds and 0 means don’t. Beware, if you change Windows themes this gets reset – which implies the theme covers the background as well.

Once the option is enabled you need to create files in the   %windir%\system32\oobe\info\backgrounds folder, the names are BackgroundHeightxWidth.JPG and BackgroundDefault.jpg so for this laptop I have a default and Background1920x1400.You can use this make your corporate Machine all more corporate or your personal machine that bit more personal.  According the Windows 7 center  where (I think) I first saw the tip the file size need to be under 256KB. If you want to customize the original background you find it’s named background.bmp in the OOBE folder (oobe for those who don’t know is Out Of Box Experience in Microsoft speak).

This post originally appeared on my technet blog.

May 5, 2009

Windows 7 for everyone !

Filed under: Beta Products,Windows 7,Windows Server 2008-R2 — jamesone111 @ 12:28 pm

I don’t normally cut and paste things from mail straight to my blog but this arrived in ready to read format so here it is

The Windows 7 Release Candidate (RC) is now available to download for everyone, and is available until June 2009 to download. Download the RC

So what’s new in the RC?  Check out this video explaining some of the enhancements introduced since the Beta release.

If you are considering deploying Windows 7 in an enterprise, try downloading Windows Server 2008 R2 to test out the ‘better together’ features such as Branch Cache.

Support for the RC is via the Windows 7 TechNet forums: Have questions? Need answers? Visit our Windows 7 Forums.

Important note to Windows 7 Beta users: The Windows 7 Beta will expire on August 1, 2009 so you must rebuild your PC with either Windows 7 Release Candidate (RC) or another valid version of Windows before July 1, 2009. You will receive a warning two weeks prior to July 1; after this date, your PC will reboot every two hours.

New resources for IT pros:

With the release of the Windows 7 there are also some new resources on the Windows 7 TechCentre. As well as the resources to guide you through your exploration of Windows 7, there is also now support on Piloting and Deploying Windows 7 and Managing Windows 7.  The new site  contains helpful information including:

Demonstration: Migrating from Windows XP to Windows 7

How to Start a Windows 7 Pilot Deployment

Windows 7 Manageability Overview

 

Is it me or did the whole internet slow down  ? 🙂

This post originally appeared on my technet blog.

May 4, 2009

Windows 7 XP mode: helpful ? Sure. Panacea ? No.

Filed under: Beta Products,Virtualization,Windows 7,Windows XP — jamesone111 @ 3:31 pm

ComputerWorld have an interesting piece up about XP Mode for Windows 7. Saying that it “could create support nightmares, analysts said today”

They quote Michael Cherry, an analyst at Directions on Microsoft as saying “I think that this will help the uptake for Windows 7, because it removes one more ‘gotcha,’ and that’s never a bad thing to do”.Well indeed, as computerworld goes on to say: The idea of using virtualization to provide backward compatibility for older applications is neither novel nor surprising, Cherry continued. He called it a nice "safety net" for users concerned about abandoning XP who don’t have access to centrally managed MED-V”

If you have more than 5 machines you can get Software Assurance and add the Microsoft desktop optimization pack (MDOP): so you get Microsoft Enterprise Desktop Virtualization (MED-V).  I’m surprised that no one has yet portrayed XP Mode as a way of raising the profile of MED-V to sell more MDOP packages. XP mode is managed locally with users “owning” the VM; anything deployed to hundreds or thousands of desktops without central management can earn the label of “support nightmare”. MED-V provides that central management. Computerworld have a quote from a Gartner analyst, Michael Silver: “You’ll have to support two versions of Windows, each needs to be secured, antivirused, firewalled and patched. Businesses don’t want to support two instances of Windows on each machine. If a company has 10,000 PCs, that’s 20,000 instances of Windows”

I think he’s wrong on that point. You don’t have to support the whole of the legacy OS in this situation – for example you don’t need to provide all the drivers for it. You just have to support configuring the legacy app on it – which is what you have been doing for the life of that OS anyway. For many of these applications you can use the simplest firewall ever – disconnect the network. We won’t surf the internet from the VM, read mail on it or do most things that risk introducing malware: this smaller attack surface means a “compatibility VM” can get away with a lower level of security. When he says “If a company has 10,000 PCs” the rest of the sentence should be “they should be using MED-V”. In an organization of that size 10,000 user controlled / unaudited machines (physical or virtual) is not an option.

I agree with him on a different point in the Computerworld article: “Companies need to heal their applications," Silver said. "They’ll be doing themselves a disservice if, because of XPM, they’re not making sure that all their apps support Windows 7." If these apps need to be “healed”  does that make them “sick” ?  Whatever label we use, there are organizations that depend on outdated applications which they didn’t write. For some reason a new version which supports Vista/Windows 7  can’t be deployed – not least because Software vendors go bust. Silver makes the point “What happens in 2014, when XP isn’t supported anymore ?”. XP is out of mainstream support now: customers can buy into extended support, but those running XP mode won’t. The applications are probably out of support too. But we have people running NT4 virtualized (but unsupported) in their data centres for some ancient-but-critical apps: the same will happen on the desktop. 

As well as the known “sick” apps, there are organizations who don’t have a complete list of applications deployed at user or departmental level: they can’t say “everything we have works on Vista/Windows 7” because they  can’t define “everything”: so XP mode is a useful safety net Michael Cherry put it ‘It removes one more “Gotcha”’.

I wouldn’t dream of arguing with the notion that “companies will be much better off if they make all their applications run on Windows 7.” as Silver put it. An application which was written properly in the 1990’s will run on 7 (I still like paintshop pro 5 and it has a copyright date of 1999): there isn’t a kind way to say it, but excluding drivers and utilities which need to get into the guts of the OS (anti-virus being the classic case) if an Application doesn’t work on an updated OS, it wasn’t written properly in the first place, so you have to ask what else is wrong with it. Sooner or later the cost of  keeping it going (whether that is lost productivity from staying on an old OS , or the cost of supporting it under virtualization) outweighs the cost of getting rid of it. Since developers have had access to Vista since early 2006 if there isn’t a fixed version now there probably never will be. It’s very easy to say that such applications should be thrown out and replaced, it’s just turns out to be hard to do in practice.

So the message should be clear

  1. Desktop virtualization is not a free excuse to avoid updating applications. It is a work around if you can’t update.
  2. Desktop virtualization needs work, both in deployment and maintenance – to restate point 1 – it you have the option to update, expect that to be less work to update the applications.
  3. As Scott Woodgate said in the first sentence we published anywhere about XP mode “Windows XP Mode is specifically designed to help small businesses move to Windows 7.” Home users and large organizations might benefit but they are not the target
    As I pointed out in my first post on the subject. MED-V is designed for larger organizations with a proper management infrastructure, and a need to deploy a centrally-managed virtual Windows XP environment  on either Windows Vista or Windows 7 desktops.

One final thought not all current Intel Processors have the VT technology that Windows Virtual PC needs. If you are thinking about buying a new PC or if advise small business buyers, make sure VT Support is checked for. Ed Bott has a good post with the details of the chips.

This post originally appeared on my technet blog.

May 3, 2009

Virtual Windows XP … picking myself up off the floor.

Filed under: Beta Products,Photography,Virtualization,Windows 7,Windows XP — jamesone111 @ 3:16 pm

Someone gave me a definition of insanity as “trying the same thing over and over again expecting different results”.  I guess trying something you expect to fail is somewhere between insanity and scientific thoroughness. Anyhow, that’s how I came to be trying the test you see below. I didn’t expect it to work, but it did.

image As I mentioned yesterday I wanted to try out the tethered shooting ability of my Digital SLR. In fact  I have two Pentax digital SLRs, a 2003 Vintage *ist-D and a 2006 K10D. Pentax have only ever done 32 bit versions of the Remote Assistant software the *ist-D works with V1 and the K10D needs V3, which demands the CD which came with the camera (even if the old software is installed or the Camera is plugged in). The cable to connect the *ist D was in the loft – along with the K10D’s disk. So I couldn’t try either last night: this morning I got out the ladder and retrieved both. 

I had installed the Remote Assistant 1.0 into the VM, mainly to see if version 3 would upgrade in place without the CD, and it showed up on my Windows 7 Start menu, so I figured I’d plug in *Ist-D. Windows 7 installed the drivers for it. I fired up the VM and pulled down the USB menu, the camera showed as shared, I clicked it and after a warning that the it would no longer be usable in the host OS it became“Attached” so the option changed to goes to “Release”. Attaching the device to the VM is just like plugging a USB device into a physical machine, so the Virtualized instance of XP installed the drivers for the camera. It’s a standard device and doesn’t need anything downloaded or provided from a disk, so it was all done in 3 clicks.

I fired up remote assistant. It gives a representation of what  you can see through the view finder (not a live preview, but the camera settings – under the picture on the left you can see it is telling me 1/80th of a second shutter speed, aperture of f/2.4.  It was getting data from the camera, so there was nothing for it at this stage but to press the shutter button, so I aimed the camera at my son and ….

Click for full size version

 

.. it worked! It only went and worked !! The picture on the left is the assistant running in the VM, and on the right it’s working as a remote application without the whole desktop. The old camera is a USB 1.1 device so the transfer speed is pretty poor: which is why I never got into tethered shooting with it; there’s a motivation to get the newer software working to use the other camera – I’ve never used it because by the time Pentax had the software out I was running 64 bit vista and wasn’t going to change for one program. [Update. Done that, identical process, much faster transfer] 

I found the whole VM bogged down terribly if I asked it to save the file it was acquiring from the camera the host computer. So I decided to cheat and add a shortcut on the start menu to link to the folder in the VM where it stores the files. (This also turns out to be a useful backdoor to launch anything which isn’t set up on the host’s start menu).

The only other fault I can find with the whole process is that you have to reconnect the USB device by starting the VM and only then can you launch the Virtual Application. I don’t know if the Virtual PC team plan to do anything about this by release.

As a Hyper-V person through and through I tend to think of  Virtual PC is a bit of an old dog – in the the best of all worlds this would be underpinned by Hyper-V technology – but here I am applauding VPCs new trick. There could be a whole new lease of life in this old dog yet.

This post originally appeared on my technet blog.

May 2, 2009

Exploring Windows XP mode for Windows 7

Filed under: Beta Products,Virtualization,Windows 7,Windows XP — jamesone111 @ 11:33 pm

image Windows Virtual PC is on Technet for people to download, the Windows Virtual PC  page says it will be available to everyone on May 5th, but the  evaluation guide is available already

I’ve installed it and started to play. I’ve only got one application which won’t work under 64 bit (Vista / Windows7 or XP) – which is the remote control application for my Pentax digital SLR camera, which seems to be a good way to test the USB integration: frankly I’ll be astonished if it works. Although the software is only useful if you own a Pentax camera, it still requires you to insert the CD which came with the camera before it will install. Grrr.
So I’ve been through the setup – I have a little video in the pipeline to show it but it’s described in the eval guide. There are two parts to install Virtual PC, which is packaged as a KB update file,and (unless you want to build your Virtual Machine) the pre-built XP VM, which is just a large installation file.  They can be installed in either order : and with a coupe of bits of user input the VM churns away to itself configuring all the necessary bits.

The integration of Virtualized applications has a simplicity and elegance to it –add something to the start menu in the Virtual machine and it shows up on the start menu in the host. So I copied the IE shortcut and it appeared on the Windows 7 start menu.

I recently read a summary of a Forester report on the number of businesses still on IE6. As the author put it “While the tech press spends a lot of time talking about Web 2.0 and even 3.0 Corporate America is on Web 0.5.” That might sound a bit harsh but were but 3 years ago now I wrote here that “If IE6 were a vegetable it would be a plain boiled potato; ubiquitous, reliable, but not exactly exciting.”. It’s been around since 2000 and in the last 8 and a bit years there has been a lot of innovation in browsers (the better the competitors in the market the more innovations in the everyone’s products).

So here is  IE6  running as a Virtual Windows XP application, with a modern browser in the back ground

Click for a lerger version

You’ll need to open the full size version to see it but there are a few things to see in the screen shot.

(1) Virtualized apps use the “furniture” of the OS they running in – so no aero glass and Windows XP minimize/maximize/close Icons

(2) The Icon for a virtualized app (the rightmost one) is looks similar to the one for the remote desktop connection.

(3) Notice how “My Documents” on the Host computer is mapped through to “My Documents” in the virtual app.

 

What I like about most about this is the lack of fuss and bother… Now to find that Pentax CD.

This post originally appeared on my technet blog.

May 1, 2009

Easy transfer is not a sign of weakness

Filed under: Beta Products,Windows 7,Windows Vista,Windows XP — jamesone111 @ 4:20 pm

image

Someone from the office (no names, no pack drill) told me they had read my post from yesterday where I mentioned Windows Easy Transfer.  They felt that it might not be quite the done thing for a technical person to use it but since I was using it , then it was probably OK.  I’ve now switched over to Windows 7 Release candidate and I used easy transfer to move almost everything: I had a a huge block of RAW photos and decided I’d back them up to an additional drive and then use easy transfer for everything else, otherwise it wouldn’t all fit on one disk. I blasted the partitions off the hard disk and did the install from my NTFS formatted bootable USB stick (also in my post from yesterday). The whole thing worked like a charm ; actually better than quite a few charms I’ve seen. 30GB of stuff takes a while to move off to disk and back, but Mail signatures, recent files lists, my IE customizations, IE History… all of them popped back into place. The only thing which seemed not to was my Outlook offline store file, and that probably benefitted from being rebuilt. 

I love the fact that Easy transfer lets me see what I had installed before and it cross checks them against what installed NOW, notice the bit that says “to see this information later”, well now when I go back it shows Foxit’s PDF reader is installed.

Half a dozen things things I like so far about the release candidate

1. Tim Hueur’s PDF preview works again ! This is one of those “can’t do without” apps for me. Designed for Vista it broke in beta of 7 and is now working again. Result !

2 It’s faster. I didn’t bother to benchmark the beta, but I’m convinced this is just snappier. The beta was faster than vista – although my 4GB machine it was fine with Vista, the people with less memory saw bigger gains

3. The pictures. Sorry that is a bit lame, but the pictures are stunning, and I love the idea of having national pictures, the UK ones are superb.

4. IE8 is now the release version, so In Private Filtering works. [I must write about that]

5. Windows handles my habit of having 60 Windows Open in IE more gracefully.

6. Jump list items have been though through better – like this one for PowerShell

 image

This post originally appeared on my technet blog.

Clarifying: the new virtual PC, Windows XP mode for Windows 7, and MED-V

Filed under: Beta Products,Virtualization,Windows 7,Windows Vista,Windows XP — jamesone111 @ 11:49 am

There is an interview with Scott Woodgate,  published as  press release on press pass  entitled Helping Small Businesses With Windows 7 Professional and Windows XP Mode. After starting to speculate about this a little too soon, I want to clarify what the bits are. Because XP mode allows something which was previously only in MED-V, the term “Med-V Lite” has been used but this is an over simplification – perhaps misleadingly so. MED-V and Windows XP Mode service different audiences and solve different business problems:

Windows Virtual PC

  • is hosted virtualization (sometimes called a type II hypervisor); by comparison hyper-V in Server 2008 is a bare-metal virtualization (sometime called a type 1 hypervisor).
  • enables users to run multiple instances of Windows on a single device (although not all Windows versions are licence for additional instances in VMs).
  • will enable users to launch many older applications seamlessly in a virtual Windows XP environment from the Windows 7 start menu. Previously this was only available as part of MED-V; now this is done in Windows Virtual PC using a wizard.
  • includes support for USB devices and is based on a new core that includes multi-threading support
  • Provides Folder, clipboard and printer Integration with the the host OS
  • There’s a run down of the changes here note the requirement for a modern CPU.

Windows XP Mode

  • combines Windows Virtual PC and a pre-installed Windows XP SP3 VHD (Virtual Hard disk) file.
  • is designed for smaller business customers who need to run Windows XP applications on their windows 7 desktops where end users control the XP environment.
  • is available for pre-install from OEMs (which we think will give the best experience) and also for download for Windows 7 Professional and Windows 7 Ultimate customers.

MED-V

  • is the management layer for IT professionals on top of Virtual PC.
  • is designed for larger organizations with a proper management infrastructure, and a need to deploy a centrally-managed virtual Windows XP environment  on either Windows Vista or Windows 7 desktops.
  • The main management areas it helps in are:
    • Deployment – delivering virtual Windows images and customizing per user and device settings, (for instance: assigning the virtual PC a name that is derived from the physical device name or the username to simplify identification and management), adjusting virtual PC memory allocation based on available RAM on host etc.
    • Provisioning – defining which applications and websites are available to different users, assigning virtual PC images to users directly or based on group membership. defining which applications in the guest OS are available on the Host’s start menu, and which web sites are redirected to the guest’s browser.
    • Control – maginging usage permissions and Virtual PC settings, Control whether the Virtual PC connects using the hosts IP address with Network Address translation or gets an an address through DHCP, Authenticating user before granting access to the Virtual PC, setting an expiry date for the the Virtual PC
    • Maintanance and Support – updating images using TrimTransfer network image delivery – when a master image is changed the PCs using it receive the changes (not the whole VHD file) , aggregating events from all users in a central database
  • Runs on Windows 7 and Windows Vista, and will not require processor-based virtualization support

This post originally appeared on my technet blog.

April 30, 2009

Now available on Technet and MSDN – RC of Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2

Filed under: Beta Products,Windows 7,Windows Server 2008-R2 — jamesone111 @ 5:15 pm

Hopefully the title is self evident. The servers are taking a real pasting right now, so you might find it best to give it a little while for things to calm down

Now if you want to install machines quickly you can copy the contents of the DVD to a BOOTABLE USB stick (disks should work too) and I posted instructions on how to make one bootable for vista back in 2006 and the same steps seem to work

  • select disk 1 {or the number of your USB key, be careful !}
  • clean  {Like I said, be careful ! This erases the disk}
  • create partition primary
  • select partition 1
  • active
  • format fs=fat32 {see below}
  • assign
  • exit
  •  

    Although the instructions above say FAT 32 I’ve formatted my stick as NTFS so I can store files on it – someone was kind enough to send me a 16GB with a bunch of VHDs on it, I’m not sure if any of the WIM files in Windows 7 / Server 2008 R2 are too large for the stick. Update: you can specify recommended instead of FS=fat32 and this seems to work – again I haven’t checked but this may use exfat which wasn’t around in 2006.

    Once you have a bootable stick you can put Xcopy the DVD files to it and use it to speed up the installation if you are trying to build multiple boxes.

    I’ve been copying files I use for installing software off this machine, and the next step is to run the easy transfer wizard to whisk my files off the machine so I can bring them back quickly …

    image

    (It says don’t use your computer, so here’s hoping that making a blog post doesn’t break anything)

    This post originally appeared on my technet blog.

    April 23, 2009

    Warming to Action Center

    Filed under: Beta Products,Windows 7 — jamesone111 @ 3:52 pm

    Click for larger versionOne of the paint point of running any Beta OS (including windows 7) is that one or two drivers can be a bit … flakey. With Vista I blamed a lot of trouble on Nvidia’s drivers during the beta and they only seemed to come right just after release. By comparison their drivers for Windows 7 are an order of magnitude better; though I’ve had issues with my screen going black even though the machine was still responsive on the network.

    I recorded a video recently about Windows 7 and I mentioned in it that I like the new option to hide items in the “system tray” as we used to call it or the “notification area” to use its proper name. I said in passing that I had hidden the new “Action Center” and one of the people reviewing the video said “oooh , you shouldn’t really hide that, it’s a really useful tool” . It is, because it gives an easy route to a whole slew of security and maintenance is  including newly discovered fixes. Fine, yes, but unless it has something I want to know it gets banished. I’m starting to change my mind about whether I want Action Center hidden after I missed something which said “update your nvida driver”. Granted the text here isn’t perfect, because it seems to be generic for all 3rd party drivers but I did what it told me to do and I went to Windows Update and well, well there is a new driver which only a few days old. I installed it via Windows update (see second picture) and so far, so good.

    But for Action Center I wouldn’t have looked in optional updates – I just leave windows update do its thing, so maybe I’ll let it have the jealously guarded space on the notification area. 

    All we need to do now is get Redmond to understand that some non-US English locales spell it Centre. That might be a lost cause though.

     

     

    Click for full size version

    This post originally appeared on my technet blog.

    April 22, 2009

    Things that work with Win 7 which didn’t work under Vista

    Filed under: Beta Products,Windows 7 — jamesone111 @ 5:23 pm

    Though the beta of Windows 7 we have been telling people that if something could be made to work on Vista, expect it to work on 7. Obviously this is not a guarantee – some things break with service packs never mind version changes, but as an expectation its a good one; and as rule of thumb it works both ways.

    A little while ago I needed to print something off at home and hooked up my old Epson. I keep meaning to sell it, and not getting round to it. Now this particular printer has a PCMCIA slot so you can plug memory cards into it – and you get an idea of the age from the fact is PCMCIA (with a supplied adapter to CF, and no SD in sight). This never worked on vista. So I was a bit surprised when the install dialog came up looking like this.

    image

    Houston we have storage support ! This seems odd to me , because surely people have alternative card readers which work at faster speeds than PCMCIA over USB 1.1 why bother putting it back ? (The only answer must be it annoyed enough people having a non working device showing up). I haven’t been back to see if support for the storage device got added to Vista.  Say… I wonder if the drivers for my HP scanner – which don’t support transparency mode – have also been updated/added to windows 7.

    This post originally appeared on my technet blog.

    April 20, 2009

    Windows7 and batteries, revisited.

    Filed under: Beta Products,Windows 7 — jamesone111 @ 10:30 pm

    imageI blogged a few weeks back that you could check on the state of your battery from the command line in Win7…

    And I said  “I pinched this battery out of another laptop because when the original was 14 months old, and was getting about 30 minutes run time”

    My laptop has had to have its motherboard replaced twice recently. First a rather nasty pattern of stripes on the display told the Dell expert my machine had cooked its graphics card (a know issue with this model) and then when I got it back as soon as the machine spun its fan up to full speed there was a click and it powered off – as if it was rather too eager to protect itself from a second cooking. Since I still have access to the other chassis I swapped over the battery and hard disk and used that. All was fine and good, this morning I got my laptop back, popped in the hard disk and away I went  – with the machine on the dead battery. I noticed a red X superimposed on the battery/charge icon, and when I clicked it I got the dialog you can see on the left “Your battery is bad” – pretty sure I haven’t seen that one before. So time to run PowerCfg /energy from an elevated prompt ….

    “The battery stored less than 40% of the Designed Capacity the last time the battery was fully charged….  Design Capacity : 57720 ;  Last Full Charge:  21334 (36%)”

    What’s interesting is the battery I tried before had a design capacity of 86580 calc – exactly 50% more – which suggests 9 Vs 6 Cells and now in its rather second hand state at 55178 it is more or less the as the other one had when new. Also worrying is that looking round for 3rd party batteries, most of them only seem to be 4400 mah (at 11volts thats 48400 mWH) it would be worse than my existing battery.

    This post originally appeared on my technet blog.

    March 12, 2009

    My enduring love for OCS .. and a Nice windows 7 feature

    My job as an evangelist focuses on Windows platform (client and Server OS), including management (i.e. PowerShell) and Virtualization. But there are other Microsoft products which from my day to day use of them I feel evangelical about. One is Windows Live Writer which is the best tool for composing blog posts that I’ve found. Word can do blog posts, but somehow writer feels better suited to the task.

    I used to do a lot with office Communications server (and I’ve written sections for both of its resource kits), but it’s a long time since I wrote about it here. I’ve been using the voice parts of it for well over  a year. I use it from home (and it’s spooky making calls from communicator to communicator with, for example , Eileen – because you hear the background sounds and acoustics). But I’ve never used it from outside the UK…

    I started putting this post together at the end of a scuba holiday: one of the best value live-aboard boats I know sails from the Bahamas and I used up my air miles for the flight – the family stayed at home and left me to it. Orange don’t even list the Bahamas on their roaming page and, although my phone can see the Cell phone provider for the islands It won’t join the network. Yes, I call home from abroad using my company issued phone – the idea being the old one of work/life balance: each intrudes on each other but not unreasonably so. A couple of quid on a short phone call to say the sharks didn’t eat me in exchange for giving up holiday/family time to clear the backlog of mail is part of that balance. Still. I had no phone here, just free internet access. “OK…” I though lets give communicator a try. It works as well as phoning from inside the office; which was a surprise given that the internet connection was none too fantastic.

    This gave me a chance to fire up the new Windows 7 resource monitor and have a look at exactly what communicator was doing. The 131 network address is Redmond and handles all the SIP traffic (call set up, and Instant Messaging) and the 213 address is in Dublin and carrying voice, although decent call quality is supposed to need latency of less than 100ms I was finding 200ms on a transatlantic call pretty darn good. And the bandwidth , averaged over a minute it’s about 2KB per second send and receive. I did a double take at that, but that’s bytes, so 16 Kbits per sec, which doesn’t require top notch broad band.

     

    image

    This post originally appeared on my technet blog.

    February 23, 2009

    How to use Advanced Queries in Windows search.

    Filed under: Beta Products,Desktop Productivity,How to,Windows 7 — jamesone111 @ 4:57 pm

    If there was one single feature about Windows Vista which made me say “I’m never ever going back to Windows XP” it was search and the way search was integrated everywhere.  True you can download Microsoft Search for Windows XP (and , as they say other kinds of desktop search are available) but it doesn’t permeate everywhere the way it does in Vista. In Windows 7 the search has got better still, with one important exception which I will come to in a moment.

    Click for full size version

    On the left you can see the result of typing in the search box ,and as you can see the search results are grouped by type. If you click on one of the of the titles it shows you just the matches of that type. However if you click “See more results” you get everything.

    imageIt so happens I was looking for copies of my invoices from Virgin media which I know are in my inbox. The problem I have is I automatically go to “see more results”, and in any event you can see that there are a lot of other things in outlook – mostly from my news feed – about what Virgin group are doing. Click through to More Results and, if you’re used to vista’s search you’ll see we’ve lost something. In Vista this box had buttons to select different kinds of content. In Windows 7 it has gone …

     

    However , you can use the Advanced Query Syntax (AQS) and boy is there a lot of it. Type Kind: and you get a list to choose from. Type size: you get some classifications, type: date: you get a calendar and bands of dates, isAttachment and HasAttachement let you pick yes or no. And a quick read of the AQS page shows there is a whole lot more you can enter. Helpfully when you enter a valid field name with the colon (:) after it it turns blue , an an invalid one stays back. 

    Now I doubt if anyone is going to remember every single option for AQS – and since it narrows the search down it is sometimes going to be quicker to scroll through the search than find out the way to narrow it down. Still I’m a great believer that we all use our own subsets of the available functionality, so have a look at what you  can do, make use of the bits that help you and forget the rest.

    This post originally appeared on my technet blog.

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