James O'Neill's Blog

January 11, 2011

Why it is better not to use PowerShell Parameter validation

Filed under: Powershell — jamesone111 @ 12:36 pm

I was giving a talk shortly before Christmas and I was giving some advice based on what I had learned writing my PowerShell library for Hyper-V. I  said

  • Don’t force user to use an object as a parameter – convert names to objects in your code
  • Don’t force users to expand arrays – expand in your code
  • Don’t automatically punish users if a parameter is empty

The corollary from this is Don’t be over proscriptive with parameter checking, especially when it comes to types – which it kicked off an interesting debate. This is best explained with real world examples, so lets take a simple case from my Hyper-V world , and all the background you need to know is

  • A server contains zero or more Virtual Machines.
  • Virtual Machines  can be “Running” or “Stopped” (and in other states)
  • Virtual Machines are represented by VM objects, which have a state property to indicate whether they are running or stopped.

With that in mind I want to look at 3 commands:
Get-VM which returns VM Objects and must, as a minimum, accept  parameters of
-server to specify where to look for VMs and –VMName to filter the selection by name 
(in case you don’t know, if there is no other parameter that starts –VM PowerShell will let you abbreviate this as –VM)
Start-VM will change the the state to running
Stop-VM will change the  state to stopped. 
Before implementing the commands one must decide (among other things):

  • What are valid inputs for the -Server and -VMName parameters in Get-VM ?
  • What inputs should start-VM and Stop-VM take.
  • The Output of Get-VM can become the input of Start-VM and Stop-VM. What should happen if no VMs are found on a server ?

It would be a good idea for you to think about how you’d answer these questions before reading on because I’m going to set out my view here. My view is right, of course, but other views are not necessarily wrong.

To me, flexibility is key. Get-VM , in my view, must allow the person typing the command to specify multiple servers easily.  The most obvious example is
Get-VM  -Server ClusterNode1, ClusterNode2
If parameter validation says the server name must be a single string then you force the user to do something like this
"ClusterName1", "ClusterNode2" | foreach-Object {Get-VM –Server $_}

Not only is the first way shorter but it can be done by a user who has no PowerShell background.  In the same way it should be possible to get those VMs whose names indicate they are located in particular cities
Get-VM  -VM "London*" ,"Paris*"
Yes, I have just sneaked in support for Wildcards. Not allowing this means forcing the user into something like 
Get-VM | where-Object {($_.name –like "London*") –or ($_.name –like "Paris*") }

This may mean more work when we implement the Command (which we do once) to save work when it is run (which happens many times). 

What about the case where we run
Get-VM  -VM "London-DC01" -Server ClusterNode1
but London-DC01 is running on ClusterNode2 : Should this command return an error?
My (limited) background in databases says that if the query runs successfully and finds no matching data, “Nothing” is a perfectly valid output, and more desirable than an exception stopping a script. This begins to answer the question of what should the input to Start-VM and Stop-VM be.   

  1. It would be illogical if they did not accept the output of Get-VM, so the following should  be possible
    $myVMs = GET-VM ; Start-VM –VM $MyVMs
    Start-VM  -VM  (Get-VM –VM "London-DC01")
    Get-VM  | Start-VM
    And should not produce an error if the GET-VM command returns no VMs.
  2. Some might think it acceptable to say the -VM parameter of Start-VM and Stop-VM must contain VM objects. But if it is possible to Get VMs by passing VM name(s) and/or server name(s) then many administrators would say that
    Start-VM  -VM  (Get-VM –VM "London-DC01")
    is too like coding, and not enough like the shell command line they would expect which would be
    Start-VM  -VM "London-DC01"

PowerShell parameter declarations can specify how their type and content should be validated.  “Real” programmers who are used to always specifying the type of everything, tend to grasp this and say “We WILL specify a type (and other validation) in every parameter declaration”. In C#, for example, if someone tries to pass your code something of the wrong type, Visual studio will stop them and tell not to be so silly – their code won’t compile so they never see a ugly red runtime error. Making parameter types agree makes a little more work, but their code will be run many times (hopefully) so that’s tolerable.  But a PowerShell user might type a command in the shell once and then it’s gone, that extra work is less tolerable, and if input which seems logical to them violates rules you have set, the first they they will know is a ugly red runtime error:  any programmer should worry when normal user behaviour produces runtime errors (though a lot will just code to avoid the runtime error, not to adapt their rules to the way users expect to work). 

In PowerShell , in practice I’ve found I can only get this flexibility by allowing anything to be passed in and doing the validation, longhand, in the body of the code. In the VM example that means code which says “Is this an array ? I’ll deal with each item”; “Is this a string ? I’ll treat it as a name which I can turn into an object”; “Is it an Object of the Class I want ? Yippee! I can process it !”; “Is it an object of some other class from which I can get an object of the class I want? Turn it into the right object.”; “Was it anything else? If so do I need to stop execution or can I return nothing ?”  Allowing anything into the function body feels wrong, but I’d ask the question “If the language did not allow you to to specify the parameter type, would you expressly write code to throw a runtime error if the parameter passed wasn’t of the expected type ? If so, might it say ‘If you want to use this as an input, then do X’ ?”.  If the answer is yes to both then Your code should do more cope with normal user behaviour  but if it is yes to the first and no to the second then Validating type might be the right way to go.

By way of a second example I came across some code to create a hash from the content of files, and because PowerShell lets you add properties to objects, the code returned file objects with an added hash , so you do

Get_Some_Files | add-hash | something_to_find_Duplicates_using_hashes

But the person who wrote add-hash refused to allow anything but a file object; I couldn’t do $myFile = add-hash "C:\user\James\myFile.stuff" , but worse  dir –recurse  | add-hash produces an error when it hits a directory objects.  
I could insert a where-object command before the add-hash to filter down to the files, but if that is how the command is going to be used on many occasions, wouldn’t it be simpler for it to do that itself ?  If skipping directories silently bothers you, then catch directories, and use write-verbose to say “Ignoring Directory Xyz”, and if  someone is trying to add a hash to something which makes no sense – like a VM object – really bothers you then catch anything that isn’t a filename, file object or directory object and throw a runtime error further down the script.

As I was writing this Shay Levy retweeted a link to the Windows Scripting Guys’ post on Validating parameters what’s interesting is they show a function which checks phone number formats. So lets put in my phone number formatted as the ITU says it should be

test-parameters "+44 (7801) 8 8 10 10"
Test-Parameters : Cannot validate argument on parameter 'phoneNumber'. The argument "+44 (7801) 8 8 10 10" does not match the "\d{3}-\d{3}-\d{4}" pattern. Supply an argument
that matches "\d{3}-\d{3}-\d{4}" and try the command again.
At line:1 char:16
+ test-parameters <<<<  "+44 (7801) 8 8 10 10"
    + CategoryInfo          : InvalidData: (:) [Test-Parameters], ParameterBindingValidationException
    + FullyQualifiedErrorId : ParameterArgumentValidationError,Test-Parameters

What kind of user understands “Supply an argument that matches “\d{3}-\d{3}-\d{4}” and try the command again.”  ?
Even if we know that the number is ALWAYS American, if the ITU says we can put brackets, dashes and spaces into the number to aid readability shouldn’t we allow (425) 555 1234 or 4255551234 and then clean up the number in the function ?

Over-prescriptive (and often plain wrong) validation comes up in plenty of places: I’ve lost count of web sites which tell me “Credit card numbers must be entered without spaces.” (with all that computing power you think they could strip out the spaces, and maybe even identify Visa and Mastercard automatically). And there are the ones who say names can only contain A-Z and a-z, tough luck if yours has a hyphen, apostrophe or accented character. (being an O’Neill this one drives me nuts. So does not checking for apostrophes and throwing a SQL error).  Realistically we’re not going to get rid of it all. Just don’t add to it, OK ?


  1. Excellent post, thanks!

    Comment by jkavanagh58 — January 11, 2011 @ 1:29 pm

  2. James – a well thought out post, as always. However, might I add (more to play devil’s advocate) that the final purpose of your script also drives how much effort you put into processing parameters as you’ve stated?

    For example, your PowerShell library for Hyper-V was clearly a good place to do all the extra processing, as you were creating code that would be used by a variety of skill levels. In the event that you were creating code for personal (or more likely, small team) use, perhaps it’s more appropriate to handle wrong input elegantly, but not process it quite so much.

    Just a thought…

    Comment by David Saxon — January 11, 2011 @ 1:59 pm

    • Thanks Both.
      @David. Yes If you are putting a quick and dirty script together you probably don’t do any checking at all. And the audience for what you’re producing determines what the input, output and errors should look like. If are writing for yourself you can say “Oh , I know I have to pipe VM objects into start-vm”. And you might add a check on parameter for the 3 in the morning moment when you try to use start-vm like get VM.
      I think the crunch part is the difference between writing a method in C# where it is going to be called from code, and where you’re writing something to be used at the command line , and if you’re writing stuff to be used by others (or yourself at sometime you can’t foresee) you should aim for an experience like the rest of powershell .
      I allow the server to be a list for example, because it is passed straight to get-WmiObject as -ComputerName (I don’t use “computer” in the hyperv library because that could mean “VM” or “Host”) and Get-wmiObject supports multiple names in that field.
      For an example of being type tolerant look at dir / get-childitem : I can do
      Dir “PICS”,
      Dir $PWD
      and get-Childitem “pics” | dir
      Which will all produce a listing of a folder, but I have passed a string, a pathInfo object and directoryInfo object.
      If Dir made me use $pwd.path and so on we’d think powershell was pretty poor. So I maybe it comes down if you care what people think of your code 🙂

      Comment by jamesone111 — January 12, 2011 @ 10:17 am

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